Polycystic ovarian syndrome, also known as PCOS, is a hormonal aberration involving about 5 to 10 percent of women. There are many small follicles (ovules) in the ovaries in these women.
On either side of the woman's uterus, a woman has her ovaries. Both ovaries contain small vesicles containing the eggs. These blisters are also called cysts. Every month, several eggs ripen. Only one of these eggs will become dominant and will be released during the leap. The egg grows and the vesicle collects liquid. When the egg is ripened the bag opens and the egg is released. This is when the ovulation takes place. However, in women with PCOS, the ovary does not get the hormones that need the eggs to grow up. The eggs start to grow, but none of the eggs grow big enough. It therefore remains cysts. Because no egg is large enough to be released, no ovulation will occur.
PCOS affects the monthly menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, blood vessels, appearance and heart. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common hormonal abnormality in women of childbearing age. Many women with PCOS have a high level of male hormones, which leads to more facial hair and hair on the chest, belly, back, thumbs and toes. Women may also suffer from an irregular or missed menstrual cycle and may have small vesicles on their ovaries. Women with PCOS are likely to have infertility problems. Other symptoms of the disorder are weight gain or obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, hair loss and sleep apnea / snoring.
The causes of polycystic ovary syndrome are unknown. A genetic link has not yet been established, although many women with PCOS say that it occurs more often in the family. Many women who have PCOS also suffer from obesity.
When diagnosing PCOS, doctors usually do a thorough investigation to see if you produce too many male hormones. Your doctor can perform ultrasound tests, check hormone levels, measure glucose levels, control hair growth and perform vaginal examination.