Normally an egg cell is fertilized and starts to divide. An embryo and a placenta develop through cell division. In a molar pregnancy, somewhere in the beginning something does not go well with cell division. The cell will share itself, but no specialization arises. Only the placenta develops. Fortunately, this form of pregnancy is rare.
There are two types of molar pregnancy:
However, the placenta continues to grow and continues to produce the pregnancy hormone HCG. In the beginning, molar pregnancy seems like an ordinary pregnancy. You also have ordinary pregnancy symptoms. Your HCG, however, increases much faster than with a normal pregnancy. Your uterus also grows faster than normal and your stomach gets larger faster. Often a molar pregnancy is detected by the ultrasound. No embryo will be found. In addition, vesicles in the tissue are caused by fluid accumulation. These (molar) vesicles look a bit like a bunch of grapes. There is also no amniotic fluid to see. Sometimes it is discovered by the midwife because no heartbeat is found. Usually a molar pregnancy is discovered by chance.
At the moment that you have a suspicion of a molar pregnancy, a blood test will be taken. If the HCG values are too high for the presumed duration of the pregnancy, in addition to the data taken from the ultrasound, you must always undergo a curettage. This curettage takes place under general anesthesia. With the curettage, which they perform very accurately and the molar tissue will be removed. The removed tissue is sent for examination. It takes about 14 days for the results to be received. There will always be some molar cells behind, but generally they are cleaned up by the body itself.
If the final result after the curettage is a molar pregnancy, the gynecologist discusses the follow-up process with you. In the first place you have to take weekly blood tests for HCG. This level will have to decrease. If the HCG drops nicely then nothing is wrong. If it stagnates or even rises again, you will undergo treatment.
A pregnancy during the period after curettage is not recommended until all HCG has disappeared from the blood. It takes about 3-4 months for the HCG to be 0. Then you have to wait another 3-6 months and then you can get pregnant again. The chance of recovery is very high and there is no increased risk of infertility.