- An inherited disorder that is characterized by wide spaced eyes, front-facing nostrils, a broad upper lip, a malformed scrotum, flat feet, short stature, joint laxity and overly extensible fingers. The disorder is passed to offspring as an X-linked recessive trait. Other common symptoms include slight to moderate mental deficiency, droopy eyelids,...
Aase-Smith Syndrome I
- An inherited disorder that affects both males and females. The disorder is characterized by a decreased amount of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Other symptoms of the disorder include water on the brain (hydrocephalus), joint anomalies and cleft palate. Affected individuals may have deformed ears, droopy eyelids, heart abnormalities and ...
Aase-Smith Syndrome II
- An inherited disorder that affects both males and females. The disorder is may be characterized by the presence of three bones within the thumbs instead of the normal two and a decreased amount of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Other symptoms of the disorder include narrow and sloping shoulders, growth retardation , cleft lip or palate,...
- The part of the body between the chest and the pelvis that contains the largest cavity in the body. Contents of the abdomen include nerves, blood vessels, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, stomach, gallbladder, liver, intestines, pancreas, spleen and the body of the espohagus. Narrower term(s): Abdominal Itching
- A broad bandage that is placed around a loose or hanging abdomen to support and maintain the enlarging pregnant uterus in an approximately normal position. The accesory may help to relieve backache, pelvic pressure, hip pain, pre-term contractions and bladder complications.
- The distance around the outer edge of a fetus's abdomen. When measured accurately, the measurement is an important tool for assessing the growth of the fetus and estimating the weight of a baby.
- Tensing of the muscles in the abdomen in order to protect inflamed organs within the abdomen from pain and pressure. This is usually seen during a physical examination in a patient that presents with symptoms of appendicitis or diverticulitis. Women that are experiencing an ectopic pregnancy may also notice abdominal guarding.
- A medical procedure in which the uterus is surgically removed through an incision in the abdominal wall. Broader term(s): Hysterectomy
- A common condition of pregnancy in which the abdomen itches because of the skin expanding. When the abdomen expands, it gets dry. The dryer the abdomen gets, the itchier it will become. It is best to not scratch the area and apply moisturizer liberally to keep the skin from becoming excessively dry. Broader term(s): Abdomen
- Pain that can be felt in the abdominal region. Organs that are located within the abdomen include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Pain can caused by a variety of factors including gas, irritation or inflammation of an organ, stretching of an organ, blockage or backup within an organ, swelling of an organ or fo...
- THe part of the embryonic sac that develops into the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen.
- Eradication or removal of tissues by surgery, laser, or freezing radiotherapy. Narrower term(s): Endometrial Ablation
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
- Any unusual bleeding from the uterus. The bleeding may be caused by endocrine disturbances, pregnancy, cancer or another abnormality. Any bleeding during pregnancy should be reported to a healthcare professional immediately, as it can be a sign of a more serious complication.
- Something that is outside the normal range or different than average.
ABO Blood Group
- A blood group in which the most common types of blood fall. The four types of blood in the ABO blood group are A, B, AB, and O.
- The potential for isoimmunization occuring in approximately 5% of pregnancies when the mother's blood group is type O, with anti-A and anti-B, while the fetus's blood group is A, B or AB.
- A medication or other agent that produces an abortion.
- The premature termination of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation. The fetus and placenta are removed from the uterus during an abortion. The abortion may be induced for medical or personal choices. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which it would be called a miscarriage. Approximately 45 million medically induced abortions are ...
- A person that performs abortions to end a pregnancy. The person that performs the procedure should be a licensed medical doctor. Most abortionists work in abortion clinics.
- A human fetus whose weight is less than 0.5 kilograms or is less than 12 weeks gestation when removed or expelled from the mother's body, either spontaneously or electively.
- A newborn infant that is born with no arms. The condition may affect one of the arms or both of the arms. The bones in the shoulder may be absent or reduced in size.
- Placental abruption occurs when the placenta separates from the wall of uterus after the 20th week of pregnancy, but before the baby is born. Normally, the placenta seprates from the uterus and is expelled after the baby is delivered. Placental abruption is the most common cause of bleeding in the third trimester. Luckily, placental abruption is ra...
- A detachment or tearing away. In obstetrics, it is most commonly referred to as placental abruption. Narrower term(s): Placental Abruption
- A localized accumulation of pus that is usually associated with an infection. There may be pain and swelling at the site of the abscess. An abscess can spread to nearby tissues, lead to a more serious infection or even death if not treated properly. An abscess will need to be surgically cut open and drained. Antibiotics may be necessary. N...
Absent Eye Syndrome
- A rare disorder that affects an unknown exact number of people. It is believed to affect approximately 1 in every 10,000 live births. A baby can be born with this disorder or it can be diagnosed later in life. Anophthalmia means that the globe and eye tissue of the orbit are missing. It can affect one eye or both, which would result in blindne...
- A voluntary decision, usually made in individuals that are not married or in a committed relationship, in which one chooses not to engage in sexual relations of any kind, including oral sex, vaginal sex and anal sex. Reasons for abstinence include prevention of obtaining or spreading a venereal disease, pregnancy prevention and religious purposes...
- Improper use or treatment of someone or something that is generally considered harmful and/or dangerous. Narrower term(s): Child Abuse Drug Abuse Substance Abuse Alcohol Abuse Sexual Abuse Physical Abuse Emotional Abuse
Abusive Head Trauma
- A form of child abuse in which a baby is violently shaken, dropped, thrown or otherwise inflicting trauma to the head, causing the brain to bounce against the skull. This is generally the effect of a frustrated parent of caregiver. Because of the extreme damage that can occur, the condition is often fatal or can cause ifelong disability from neur...
- A type of free-living protozoa found in soil, dust, springs, hot tubs and fresh water. The infection can enter the body through a cut and has also been associated with contact lens use because the protozoa can survive in the eyes. The protozoa can cause disease and infection in humans, such as encephalitis. More serious conditions can occur and ...
Acardiac Twin Syndrome
- A very rare condition that occurs in 1 out of every 35,000 twin pregnancies. One of the twins is normal (also known as the pump twin) and the other twin is only body-like tissue with legs and a lower body (known as the acardiac twin). The upper body and heart are not present. However, abnormal blood vessels on the placenta allow the normal twin to ...
- An extra nipple that develops anywhere on the sides of the thoracoabdominal wall along the mamillary lines. Accessory nipples are present from birth. Both men and women have them and can sometimes have them on both sides Broader term(s): Nipple
- Occurs when a piece of the placenta is connected to a blood vessel and is left behind after the afterbirth has been delivered, which will lead to postpartum bleeding. A succenturiate, or accesory, lobe is a second or third placental lobe that is much smaller than the main portion of the placenta. Common risk factors associated with the condition ...
- The unintentional and unexpected loss of a pregnancy as the result of an injury or trauma. Broader term(s): Abortion
- A certificate of credentials or achievement that a facility or indiviudal receives. To receive the best care possible, do interviews with your caregiver and make sure that the doctor, healthcare practice and hospital are accredited.
- An oral drug that is used to lower blood pressure. Pregnant women should not take the medication during any trimester due to the increased risk of fetal birth defects. Fetal effects of the medication include heart abnormalities, central nervous system complications, kidney disorders, growth retardation and other birth defects. Synonym(s): Angiot...
- Congenital absence of the head, which is not compatible with life and can be detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations. The condition is very rare, more so than anencephaly.
- An over-the-counter medication that is used to relieve pain, body aches and fever. Tylenol is one common medication with acetaminophen. No prescription is necessary for acetaminophen. Pregnant women are able to safely take the recommended dosage if necessary. Acetaminophen is excreted in breast milk in small quantities, but appears to be safe t...
- A chemical that is often found in fingernail polish, polish removers, astringents and other cleaners/stripping solutions. Because acetone can cause low levels of oxygen, it is important to use the chemical in a well ventilated area during pregnancy.
- A chemical that is found only inside the neural tissue. Noteable presence in the amniotic fluid indicates an opening in the neural tube.
- A birth defect in which the baby is born with one or both of the lips missing.
- A congenital anomaly in which one or both of the hands are missing at birth.
- A congenital anomaly in which one or both of the feet are missing at birth.
- A birth defect that affects approximately 1 out of every 50,000 births. Bone and cartilage development is affected by this severe genetic disorder. A child that is born with achondrogenesis will usually have a small body with short arms and legs. They may also suffer with a small chest, enlarged abdomen and breathing difficulties from immature ...
- A genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism. Most achondroplastic dwarfs do not grow beyond 52 inches tall and will not be proportional. It is common for a achondroplastic dwarf to have short arms, legs, fingers and toes. Usually they will have a large head with deformities in the spine. It is not uncommon for a achondroplastic dw...
- A genetically inherited condition that stands for autosomal dominant compelling heliopthalmic outburst. Indiviudals with this disorder sneeze uncontrollably as a result of hypersensitivity to light or brightness. There is no treatment for the condition, but most individuals will wear sunglasses to prevent the sneezing attacks.
- The absence of the umbilical cord.
- A hereditary condition in which an individual is nearly or completely colorblind. The condition is rare and affects only one person in about 33,000.
- A painful burning sensation in the chest that is caused by food and stomach juices backing up into the esophagus. Acid indigestion is a common complaint among pregnant women. This common condiiton is generally not dangerous and will go away after the baby is born. More than half of all pregnant women will experience some form of acid indigestion d...
- An inflammatory skin disease that effects the pores. Excessive production of oil from the sebaceous glands cause the hair follicles to become clogged, which leads to pimples, white heads, back heads, cysts and abcesses. Pregnancy tends to make acne worse because high levels of hormones in the body increase the size of the sebaceous glands, which ...
- Forced and unwilling sexual activity by someone that the vicitm knows or is famiiar with. A family member, friend or date is generally the attacker.
- The loss of hearing that develops during an individual's life that was not present at the time of birth. Genetic may or may not be a factor in the condition. An individual can become deaf when exposed to abnormally loud levels of noise or when the internal ear is damaged.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
- AIDS. Caused by a strain of HIV that can be transmitted through sexual contact, contaminated blood or bodily fluids, contaminated drug needles and through childbirth if the mother is infected. The diseaseattacks and destroys the body's immune system, which makes the individual susceptible to infections and other diseases and causing weight loss, ...
- Immunity resulting from exposure to disease after birth. Immunity can be acquired by the development of antibodies after an attack of an infectious disease. Broader term(s): Immunity
- A defect or mutation that is passed from parent to child.
- A chromosome in which the centromere is near one end so that one chromosomal arm is short and the other is long. Down syndrome is caused by an extra acrocentric chromosome.
- The blueish appearance of a newborn infants hands and feet that is seen during the first few hours after delivery. The hands and feet may feel cold to the touch.
- Hormonal disorder caused by the body's overproduction of growth hormones. The most common effects of acromegaly are abnormal growth of hands and feet and bone changes that alter facial shape and features. Other symptoms of the disorder may include joint aches, skin tags, sleep apnea, erectile dysfunction in men and decreased libido.
- A type of dwarfism that is characterized by extremely short distal segments of the limbs. The disorder occurs as an autosomal recessive inheritance.
- A cap-like memrane bound structure in the head of the sperm that contains enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate through the layers of an egg at the time of fertilization.
- A type of long-lasting immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens. This type of immunity can occur by means of a natural infection or by a vaccine. Broader term(s): Immunity
- A part of the first stage of labor when the cervix dilates from three to seven centimeters. Most women are admitted to the hospital at this time and pain relief will generally be offered during this stage of labor. Typically, this part of labor will last approximately two to four hours.
- An ancient Chinese technique of inserting very thin needles through the skin at specific points on the body to control pain and other symptoms. The practice is appoximately 2,000 years old and is gaining in popularity around the world. Some women find acupuncture helps to relieve common symptoms of pregnancy, such as morning sickness, fatigue, bl...
Acute Ascending Infection
- An infection in which an organism or bacteria contaminates the amniotic fluid. Most commonly the infection occurs in women that are experiencing premature rupture of the membranes. A biophysical profile may be performed to detect the infection and assess the well-being of the fetus.
- Inflammation or infection of the lining of the uterus that is characterized by infection, usually caused by Streptococcus or staphylococcus aureus. The cause of infection can usually be related to delivery, the use of medical instruments, remaining fragments of placental tissue and/or abortions. Common symptoms of the condition include high fev...
Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy
- An uncommon condition that occurs in late pregnancy. Symptoms of the condition include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice, edema and hypertension. The condition may be related to a genetic defect in the fetus.
- An abnormality that is present from the time of birth, in which the newborn infant does not have a urinary bladder.
- A congenital birth defect in which the child will be missing fingers and/or toes at birth. The child may show no other symptoms, or there may be other defects and disorders present. Women that smoke during pregnancy have an increased risk of carrying a child with adactyly. Broader term(s): Birth Defect
- A neurological condition that is characterized by an attention span that is less than expected for the age of the person. The syndrome is often evident from childhood and may cause restlessness, disorganization, hyperactivity, distractibility, and mood swings. Synonym(s): Attention Deficit Disorder
- Blood disorder caused by a lack of vitamin B12. Because the heart has to work harder to pump blood, people with this disorder may often be tired and weak because the body isn't getting enough oxygen. If left untreated this disease may cause serious problems in the heart, nerves and other body parts. Some of these include heart murmurs, tingling...
- An aggressive cancerous tumor that is most commonly found in the uterus. The tumor is made up of malignant glandular tissue but many of the cells show benign differentiation.
- A form of cancer, beginning in the glandular tissue, in which the malignant tissue is derived from epitheleal cells or arranged in a gland like pattern. In the female reproductive system, this cancer affects the breasts, uterus and cervix. This is the most common type of endometrial cancer. Synonym(s): Glandular Cancer Narrower term(s): Clear Ce...
- A benign condition of the breast that commonly affects young women. The condition is characterized by the formation of hard nodules of glandular tisse. Because of the similarities, it may be difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. Synonym(s): Sclerosing Adenosis
- The abnormal, but benign, ingrowth of the endormetrium into the uterine walls. Women between the ages of 35 and 50 are most commonly affected. The condition has been associated with uterine trauma, such as cesarean section, tubal ligation, pregnancy or abortion. The symptoms are similar to that of endometriosis and the only permanent cure is h...
- An infant or child's chronological age minus the number of weeks they were born early. Evaluation of growth, feeding skills, and development should be based on the adjusted age for preterm infants Synonym(s): Corrected Age
- A pregnancy that occurs in a female aged 19 and under. Most adolescent pregnancies are unplanned. Because an adolescent's body and mind is not completely ready to handle the demands of pregnancy, there are increased risks for both mother and baby. Synonym(s): Teenage Pregnancy
- Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent (or parents) other than the biological birth parents. Often the birth mother chooses to place her child for adoption when she realizes that she can not provide a quality life for the child. If a birth parent wishes to remain in contact with the child, an open adoption may be c...
- General term for a group of syndromes characterized by masculinization of women, feminization of men or early sexual development in children. This condtion can be caused by malignant tumors or overgrowth of cells in the adrenal cortex.
- A male sex hormone that is found in the adrenal cortex.
- A signed document in the form of a living will or a durable power of attorney for heatlh care that states an individual's wishes in regards to medical care in the event of becoming unable to make decisions. The document does not have to be signed or reviewed by an attorney, but it must be signed by two witnesses. In some areas, the witnesses can ...
Advanced Maternal Age
- A woman that is 35 years of age or more at the time of delivery of her baby. It is becoming more popular for women to begin or extend their family after the age of 35. A woman of advanced age will likely be offered additional tests to diagnose or rule out possible complications. Research has shown that women over the age of 35 are more likely t...
Adverse Drug Effect
- An undesired effect of a medication that may range in severity from barely noticeable, to uncomfortable, to dangerous. Common side effects include dizziness, nausea, fatigue, dry mouth, anxiety and diarrhea. Synonym(s): Side Effect
- A protein produced by a developing fetus that is present in amniotic fluid and in the mother's blood. The early blood test is called the triple screen and should be performed between the 15th and 18th week of pregnancy. Abnormal levels of AFP can indicate abnormalities in the fetus. Elevated levels would be a sign of a neural tube defect and lo...
- The placenta and fetal membranes that are expelled from the uterus following the birth of the baby. The placenta is the valuable, yet disposable, organ that joins the mother and fetus throughout the pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. The afterbirth will be approximately 7 inches in diameter and approximately 2 i...
- Cramping sensations that are triggered by the contracting of the uterus in the postpartum phase as it shrinks down to its pre-pregnant size. Afterpains are more common and painful in subsequent pregnancies. With each pregnancy the tone of the uterus becomes more relaxed, which makes the uterus contract more forcefully as it shrinks to its pre-preg...
- Congenital absence, or abnormal development, of the genitals. Generally, the abnormality is accompanied by protrusion of the abdominal organs through an incomplete abdominal wall.
Agglutination Inhibition Test
- A test for detection and confirmation of pregnancy by means of immunologic techniques, based on the antigenic properties of the hCG hormone. The test measures urine levels of hCG and pregnancy can be detected as early as 10 days after a missed menstrual period. The test is also used to aid in the detection of hCG secreting tumors, such as hydatid...
- A deteriorating placenta, towards the ends of pregnancy. As the placenta ages, it is less capable of supplying oxygen and nutrients to the fetus. After 42 weeks of pregnancy, the placenta is not able to handle the demands of pregnancy and it is crucial that the baby be delivered. Synonym(s): Placental Deterioration
- Congenital absence of the ovaries or testes. The gonads may have initially developed, but degenerated shortly afterwards.
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Caused by a strain of HIV that can be transmitted through sexual contact, contaminated blood or bodily fluids, contaminated drug needles and through childbirth if the mother is infected. The disease attacks and destroys the body's immune system, which makes the individual susceptible to infections and other di...
- An inherited condition in which an individual lacks pigmentation of the skin, hair, choroid, retina and iris. People with albinism have fair skin, light colored or white hair and sunburn easily.
- A protein made in the liver that assists in maintaining blood volume in the arteries and veins. The preotein is detectable by urinalysis or a simple blood test. If the protein is detected during pregnancy, it could be a sign of preeclampsia.
- A condition in which albumin is found in the urine above a specified level, which indicates a possible kidney disorder.
- A bronchodilator used for the treatment of asthma that can cause low sugar levels and rapid breathing levels in the newborn if taken during pregnancy. Research shows that albuterol may decrease the occurrence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
- The continuous and excessive use of alcohol and alcoholic drinks, despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse will lead to alcoholism, which is a disease. There are many complications that are associated with alcohol abuse during pregnancy, including low birth weight, congenital abnormalities and fetal alcohol syndrome. Broader term(s): Abuse...
- A technique that is named after F. Matthias Alexander, in which indiviudals are made aware of proper posture and movement. This technique is often used during childbirth to reduce pain and improve breathing.
Allan Herndon Dudley Syndrome
- An extremely rare condition that is only known to affect approximately 25 people in the entire world. Researchers believe that a X-linked trait is the cause and therefore, only males experience the disorder. People that suffer from this disorder are severely mentally retarded and have a hard time speaking clearly and putting words together. ...
- Any agent or substance that can trigger an allergic reaction. Common allergens include foods, molds, grass, weeds, pet dander, cigarette smoke and detergents. Researchers believe that avoiding foods that can cause allergies, such as peanuts and wheat, during pregnancy may prevent the offspring from developing certain food allergies.
- Absence of the normal vaginal discharge, lochia, after childbirth.
- An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks hair follicles that leads to a sudden loss of smooth, circular patches of hair. The condition has been noted during late stage pregnancy. Puberty and menopause have also been associated with potential Alopecia Areata onset or remission.
- An inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin, causing anemia. Treatment options include daily folic acid supplements, surgical removal of the spleen and blood transfusions.
- A protein produced by a developing fetus that is present in amniotic fluid and in the mother's blood. The early blood test is called the triple screen and should be performed between the 15th and 18th week of pregnancy. . Abnormal levels of AFP can indicate abnormalities in the fetus. Elevated levels would be a sign of a neural tube defect and ...
- A medication that is used during labor and delivery to reduce the amount of pain that a laboring woman feels. Because the medication crosses the placenta, the baby may experience respiratory distress.
- A rare genetic disorder with only 469 confirmed cases worldwide. The disorder is progressive and will get worse over time. Most parents and caregivers first notice that their infant is very sensitive to light. Some children's eyes will appear to wobble as well. Another early sign of Alstrom Syndrome in infants under one year old is congenitive ...
- Small milk-producing sacson the breast. Both breasts have hundreds of alveoli, rearranged in clusters, resembling a bunch of grapes. Progesterone increases the size of the alveoli during pregnancy.
- A rare condition in which the breast tissue, areola and nipple are absent at the time of birth. Mammary surgery can be performed to surgically repair the condition.
- A condition in which an infant's gender is not clear because the genitals do not appear to be male or female. During pregnancy, the fetus has tissue that will become ovaries or testicles. The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines which gender the baby will be. A normal female is written as 46,XX and a normal male is written as 46, XY because norm...
- The absence or abnormal cessation of menstruation in a woman that is not experiencing menopause. Amenorrhea can be caused a vareityof factors including pregnancy, dietary changes, emotional stress and exercise.
American Academy Of Pediatrics
- A professional organization of pediatricians that are specially trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Their motto is, 'Dedicated to the Health of All Children.' The majority of American pediatricians are members of this organization Synonym(s): AAP
- Congenital absence of the uterus. In females with no uterus, pregnancy can not be achieved.
- Substances or compounds that act as building blocks in the developing embryo and fetus during prenatal development.
- A family of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Common types include streptomycin, amikacin and gentamicin. Pregnant women should be warned against the medication because of the deleterious effects on a developing fetus.
- An infection of the amniotic membranes, uterus and occasionally the fetus, due to fungal or bacterial infections. Prolonged rupture of the membranes and multiple cervical examinations are common causes of the infection. Symptoms include fever, contractions, cervical dilation, uterine tenderness, increased white blood cell count, foul-smelling amn...
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